What is 5G

What is 5G

Hello friends, we are all using 4G.  You will also know that 5G is coming. It is being said that it will give at least 10 times more speed than 4G.

 What is 5G and why is it needed when 4G is so popular.

The 4G network becomes quite congested by connecting more people. We get an average speed of 1 to 10 Mbps and latency of 50 to 100 milliseconds because the spectrum used by 4G does not have the capabilities of fast data transfer.

So with increasing population, Internet usage, automatic machines in the future, self-driving cars, all of them will need fast internet and low latency. Its solution is 5G.

Fifth Generation Radio Network (5GNR) will be able to give us speeds up to 20 Gbps. However, if it is shared, then we users will get a speed of at least 100 Mbps and with a 1-second latency. It will also be able to handle the large population in one place.

How 5G work

Lets first discuss the spectrum.

5G will work on 3 types of Spectrum

1. Sub 1 GHz

Sub 1GHz spectrum is also called a Low band spectrum. Radio waves of below 1GHz like 600 MHz, 700 MHz can travel long distances and can easily pass through walls. But these can’t deliver high-speed networks. It could deliver a maximum speed of 100 MBPS.

Nowadays Sub 1 GHz becoming very congested because all network operators using this.  This spectrum is used in 4G and also will be used on 5G. From here 1 thing is sure that 4G will be the backbone of 5G.

2. Sub 6 GHz

This spectrum can generate radio waves up to 6 GHz. The signal range is shorter and internet speed is faster than the sub 1 GHz spectrum. It could deliver a maximum speed of 1 GBPS. Some 4G network operators use this spectrum. This means the sub 6 GHz spectrum is not only for 5G.

To increase range in Sub 6 GHz technologies used like massive Mimo, multiple Mimo, career aggregation.

4G of the sub 6 GHz is called LTE Advance.

3. mmWaves: High band spectrum

This is the true 5G spectrum. In this frequency between 6 GHz to 30 GHz is called cm waves and frequency between 30-100 GHz is called mm waves. mm-waves can transfer very fast data, but the problem in mm-waves is its range is much shorter than the 6 GHz spectrum. This can’t pass through a wall or other objects. It can get reflected or observed from many objects.

Due to short in range, big towers can’t help in this network. To serve mm-waves network operators have to place mm-waves frequency sending boxes near the consumers. Network operators can use existing infrastructure like street light poles, traffic signal poles, utility poles.

In 4G or 3G networks, the network signal is shared to all over its range. But in 5G it will only be shared with the consumer by using beamforming technology.

5G will give the topmost internet speed to the consumer. It could deliver a maximum speed of up to 20 GBPS.

Other technologies used in 5G are LTE-U, Qam-256, Qam-1024, NFV, SDN, etc.. By using all those things 5G is created.


Now you all understand that many things are unique in 5G and for many things it also takes the help of 4G. 5G could deliver more smooth internet using experience to the world.

5G will be this much strong that it could handle 1 million devices within 1 square kilometer. Machines like smart home solutions, driverless cars, robots, etc. can take the benefit of 5G.

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