DNA is an amazing molecule that nobody knew about until a few decades ago. From the beginning, the scientist predicted that there is something inside the cells that keeps the human’s properties going on for generations to come. After research, that thing was found and called DNA.
What is DNA
The full form of DNA is Deoxyribonucleic Acid. It is called nucleic acid because it is found in the nucleus. The nucleus is the part of the cell that controls the whole cell.
The DNA is a double-stranded molecule that is coiled and supercoiled. We call this whole bundle a chromosome. The number of chromosomes varies in each species which is fixed. For example, the human has 46 chromosomes within 1 cell, similarly, horses have 64 chromosomes. Chromosomes have coiled and supercoiled to fit in a cell. The cell’s diameter is .01 centimeters, similarly, the length of DNA residing in a chromosome is 2 to 8 centimeters.
If all the DNA that is in the whole cells of a human being is put together, then its length will reach the sun and reach back to the earth.
Structure of DNA
The DNA structure was first discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick, which are made up of two stands, parallel to each other. These 2 stands composed of three components they are deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous bases. Nitrogenous bases are then 4 types Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), and Thymine (T).
A of one stand forms a bond from the T of the other stand, similarly, G and C form a bond, due to which 2 stands are connected together. Both of these stands contain the same genetic code.
When a cell divides into 2 cells, the DNA from the chromosome becomes uncoil. Then 2 stands make their duplicate. Then DNA of those 2 cells gets coiled then supercoiled and becomes chromosome.
Messenger ribonucleic acid RNA reads the code language of DNA. This process is called transcription. RNA creates its own language, made up of code like DNA. The only difference is that RNA is of single stand and contains Uracil instead of Thymine.
RNA performs two important functions, the first is to reach genetic information to the ribosome and the second is to select the right amino acids for the ribosome. Ribosomes make proteins with the help of RNA.
DNA functions and uses
There are different types and quantities of proteins inside every human being. Which makes every human being different from each other. Because every human DNA has unique genetic information inside it. This information is transferred half from his father and a half from his mother.
The code that holds the information that makes up the mixture of proteins is present in a particular place. That place is called genes and the code it contains is called the genetic code.
For example, the DNA growth of long-lived humans has the information to produce hormones in greater quantity. Similarly, in people of short stature, the DNA growth hormone has the information to be produced in low quantity. In this way, the parts of our entire body grow like skin color, eye color, hair color, and intelligence extra.
No two humans have of same DNA. Due to this, by testing DNA, they find the parents of the lost children, find out the relationship, find the criminals from body samples.